COHESIVE TIES IN ENGLISH AT A GLANCE
Tackling relations of meaning and references in a text is often related to cohesion. A text can be cohesive if its units are bound together with explicit or implicit relations. Cohesion is often defined as the network of lexical, grammatical, and other relations which provide links between various parts of a text. Cohesion is also considered as the formal linkage between an element of a discourse or a text and another element in the same discourse or text. The units of a cohesive text are not just a random set of sentences. The connectivity of the elements of a text is mainly a matter of reference and meaning. The present paper aims at shedding light on grammatical and lexical cohesion in English. Cohesion can be expressed through the stratal organisation of language that consists of three levels of coding which are meanings of the semantic system, the wording of the lexico-grammatical system, and the phonological and orthographic systems. In fact, meaning is put into wording and wording into sound or writing. Wording is the lexicogrammatical form in which the more general meaning is expressed through grammar and the more specific meaning through vocabulary. Hence, cohesion is expressed through grammar and vocabulary. Grammatical cohesion includes reference, substitution and ellipsis; lexical cohesion is expressed by reiteration and collocation. Conjunctions are on the borderline between grammatical and lexical cohesion.