Cocktail verbal trademarks: structure and semantics
The study is devoted to the problem of trademarks. Trademarks have generated undoubted research interest for many decades. This interest is explained by the inherent nature of trademarks as attributes of modern human civilization and interest in the problem of verbal trademarks, which is shown by representatives of various social disciplines. Since the main role of verbal trademarks is primarily to have a positive impact on the recipient, the study of effective expressive means of language, which are used to achieve a positive effect, is of great interest and determines the relevance of this study. To date, the problems associated with the use of language in the verbal trademarks to achieve a positive effect on the buyer, have been considered by most researchers intensively and in depth. The object of the study in this article is names of cocktail brands, and the subject is their structure and lexical content, as well as their pragmatic and linguocultural potential. The study was conducted using a comprehensive methodology including definitional, structural, semantic and sociolinguistic methods. More than 300 trademarks of cocktails that we found in various dictionaries, modern media and media portals were analyzed in the course of the study. The study established the main versions of the etymology of the term “cocktail”. The word-formation specificity of cocktail names was also determined, consisting in the fact that verbal trademarks of cocktails can be both simple – consisting of one lexeme, and word combinations consisting of two, three, four or even five components. The analysis of the lexical-semantic bases of the verbal trademarks of cocktails revealed the semantic basis for creating the necessary pragmatic effect of the name of the cocktail. It can be manifested in the use of words with explicitly expressed positive semantics, images that allow to give a much brighter and more obvious characteristic of the named object, as well as related to pragmatics, because the names are reflected in the emotional attitude of the subject of speech. The obtained results can also be used as material for the study of onomastic and linguocultural characteristics of word trademarks.