Linguomental anthroposphere in focus of comparative linguocultural analysis
The purpose of this article is to identify the peculiarities of linguomental anthroposphere in Russian, Ukrainian, British and American linguocultures. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that common and national-cultural differences of subsphere FAMILY, EMOTIONS, VALUES in different languages are distinguished. The material of our research was lexicographic and phraseological sources of the Russian, Ukrainian and English languages, as well as the data of the psycholinguistic experiment. It was proved that the linguocognitive structure of subsphere FAMILY in Russian, Ukrainian, British and American linguocultures is presented by four categorical blocks. The results of the psycholinguistic experiment demonstrate, for instance, that the Russian and Ukrainian speakers consider the family as more patriarchal one while the British and Americans associate family with equality of partners. We established that good in the naive linguistic pictures of the world is universally associated with positive notions of kindness, mercy, goodness, virtue. Evil is also a universal category in the linguistic consciousness, associated with bad, disgusting: injustice, dishonesty, indifference, immorality. We found out that the truth is associated with honesty (Ukrainian чесність, Russian честность), and the main associations of lie are semantic synonyms: Russian обман, неправда, Ukrainian брехня, English dishonesty, deceit. Kindness as a quality of a good person comes first for the Russian, British and American speakers. For Ukrainians, honesty is more important than kindness. Generosity is an indicator of a good person for almost 50% of English and American respondents, and for 15-20% respondents from Russia, Ukraine and the USA.