ON ARABIC ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE WORDS RECALL USING CUED RECALL PARADIGMS: IS IT ABSTRACTNESS, CONCRETENESS, OR ZERO EFFECT?
The purpose of the study is to see whether abstract or concrete words are better recalled in cued recall type and to measure forward and backward displayed factors in cued recall. 9 undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, participated in this study where they were trained to differentiate between abstract and concrete words. A list of 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words was then given to them to be classified into abstract and concrete words based on four factors: concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness and age of acquisition. An observation sheet was provided to the experiment administrator to document the observed recall effects and recalled words. Three methods were used to facilitate this experiment: auditory, visual and writing methods. The sheets were designed to measure both forward and backward recall factors. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were run to analyse the collected data. Computed referential statistical tools indicated acceptable yet significant values for the researchers-designed measures. Descriptive statistics indicated zero effect as the most frequent effect which meant that there was no advantage of abstract words (M: 10, SD: .00) over concrete words (M: 9, SD: .00) or vice versa thought a minor insignificant difference was calculated in favour of the abstractness effect. There was also no significant percentage between forward and backward recall tests (51%) for the former and (49%) for the latter. The percentage of the non-recalled words was generally less than (1%), (M: 19, SD: .00). The total number of recalled abstract words was slightly yet insignificantly higher than the total number of recalled concrete words in cued recall paradigms of Arabic abstract and concrete words recall. Also, there was no statistically significant difference between forward and backward recall tests; although, a minor noticed difference was statistically calculated. Lastly, using more than a cue in cued recall paradigms increased the chances of words recall.