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DOI: 10.18413/2313-8912-2018-4-1-22-39

LANGUAGE AS A VERBAL CATEGORY OF THE WAY OF UNDERSTANDING THE WORLD

In the article, the process of nomination is studied through the prism of retrospective analysis of the relationship between the picture of the world and national culture; the authors explain the importance of studying the linguistic picture of the world for understanding the special nature of national identity and identify the peculiarities of the Russian linguistic picture of the world. The process of understanding the world is considered from the point of view of its being subject to heterogeneous (dissimilar), heterochronic (knowable at different periods of time), heterosubstituted (having different cognitive-based) information about the world. The analysis of the existing concepts of different schools of thought on the phenomenon of the "linguistic picture of the world ". The authors emphasize that the man initially tried to replace the real world with a picture created in himself, i.e. in his mind. A special place among the pictures of the world, the authors give to a language picture of the world, covering all spheres of human knowledge and appearing in the system of different pictures of the world's as the most durable, sustainable (of course, only in a particular time sample), and standard. Ethnos in general, as well as its national culture, is a combination of the general and specific. Moreover, according to the authors, everyone has their individual view of the world. The authors prove that the semantic universe of the Russian language is formed by such features as emotionality and the breadth of the Russian soul, "irrationality", humility, and obedience, associated with non-agentiality; commitment to moralizing as a desire to absolutize good and evil; polarity of the estimates, inability and unwillingness to compromise. Nomination is defined in the article as the main way of representing the world in which its semantic universe and, accordingly, the dominant features of the Russian mentality, found in language and culture, are found; historical, geographical, political and religious factors that influenced the formation of the Russian cultural archetype are explored. A dominant feature of the Russian mentality is singled out; ethnic stereotypes are analyzed, representing a simplified, schematized, emotionally colored and fairly stable image of an ethnic community, but at the same time, the emphasis is placed on the difference between autostereotypes and heterostereotypes. The conclusion is made about the ambiguity in determining the productive ways of nominating the world, while emphasizing the priority of nationally marked language elements at all levels of the language, which are determined by a pragmatic factor in the formation of the linguistic picture of the world.

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