Ways of emotions verbalization and emotive potential of a language sign
Being an integral component of spiritual culture, emotions, for all their universality, manifest in different languages certain specificities of verbalization, due to the inherent subjectiveness of interpretation of the surrounding reality, which is of undoubted interest for linguistics. The linguistic-psychological and linguistic interpretation of the data presented in the language makes it possible to consider the latter as the representation of the special knowledge behind the facts of natural language, as the representation of the constructs of conceptual consciousness. Introduction and theoretical justification. Emotions are a form of reality reflection. They form an integral part of human existence and play a significant role in people's lives. In the process of cognition of the objects and phenomena of reality we react, show our attitude in different assessments, feelings, which undoubtedly finds its expression in the language. Thus, emotions are a complex product of human spiritual and cognitive activity. The study of the ways of their reflection in the language and the reflection of accepted in this linguistic community ideas about the positivity/ negativity of emotions is of particular importance from the point of view of further development of linguistic methods of studying emotionality. Main part. The essence of a person is revealed precisely in the internal and external communication. There are at least two types of communication: verbal and non-verbal. The main verbal methods of transmitting emotions include lexical (word-formation, phraseology) and syntactic means. The vocabulary of emotions includes words, the subject-logical meaning of which constitutes emotional concepts. The emotional vocabulary includes emotionally colored words containing a sensual background. The basis of a single model of a global description of the whole range of emotive vocabulary can be the category of emotiveness. The category of emotiveness is directly related to the lexical means of verbalizing emotions. These methods are characterized by the presence of direct nominees of emotions, in other words, associated with the technique of direct and indirect verbalization of emotions. Indirect (mediated) verbalization of emotions is more effective for localizing the negative emotions of a communication partner, when their direct verbalization is not only irrelevant, but also unacceptable. The basic operational element for identifying emotionality of vocabulary (autonomously or in utterance) is emotive meanings in the seminal structure of a language mark. Emotive meanings are flexible and are variable reflected in lexical semantics. They carry information about human emotions; they appear in the content of various language and speech units in the form of specialized semantic components peculiar to these units. Consequently, they constitute the semantic core of emotive vocabulary. Conclusion. The methods of objectification of emotions stem from the emotive potential of a language sign. The emotive potential of a language sign may belong to the latter initially or can be be introduced. The speech situation leaves an emotional imprint on the use of linguistic units and this fact contributes to the formation of a semantic gap in the structure of the sign used. Denotative sense, thus, “overgrows” with additional meanings, which are often nationally and culturally conditioned and function at the level of ethnostratus. Due to the presence of ethno-cultural traces in the semantics of emotive speeches, it is possible to distinguish their national specific parameters at the level of speech functioning.