The role of translations of canonical texts in the processes of forming the language norm of Romance languages
The purpose of this study is to describe some general patterns in the process of translating the Bible, regardless of the language in which these translations were carried out; to identify the typology of the influence of biblical translations on the formation of the norm of the literary language; present the history of translations of the Holy Scriptures into Romance languages as a change of stages and illustrate with specific examples (mainly from Old Testament translations) the specific nature of these stages. The first part of the article discusses some common problems of translating the original canonical text of Biblia Hebraica into various European and African languages, including the typology of Old Testament translation strategies developed in the framework of previous studies on this topic by one of the authors of this work, together with French semitologist Professor F. Cassuto Further, this issue is analyzed on the basis of Romance languages. For the main Romance languages of Western Europe, two periods of translation of biblical texts are contrasted. The first, conventionally called medieval, lasted until the XVI century. and was characterized by an appeal to Latin sources and selective, fragmentary translations-paraphrases, including interpretations, additions, modernization of the text. The second one begins from the end of the XV – XVI centuries, when full translations from the originals appear. A special role was played by Bible translations in the history of minority Romance languages (Gascon, Romansh). Based on the material of five translations of the Old Testament into French (XVI-XX centuries), the features of the translation of the names of God are considered.