Structural characteristics of code-switching in Russian utterances of bilingual children in Russia and the USA
The main objective of the article is to compare the structural characteristics of code switching in the speech of four-year-old children who learn Russian and English in Russia and the United States. The material of the study was extracted from video and audio recordings made by the authors during the observation of four-year-old children in the process of their interaction with other children and adults. The analysis of the structural characteristics of intra-phrasal switching was carried out on the basis of the provisions of the theory and interaction of matrix and guest languages (a framework model of a matrix language) developed by K. Myers-Scott. The structure of code switching in the context of monoethnic child bilingualism, which was formed in children in Russia, and in situations of the development of heritational child bilingualism in Russian children in the United States, has quite a few common characteristics. The main differences that were observed in switching between Russian and American children are quantitative. Interpretation of the research results is closely related to the specifics of the formation of children's bilingualism and the socio-cultural characteristics of bilingual communication. For contact linguistics, observations of the interpenetration of the morphosyntactic features of the Russian and English languages during their close contact in oral speech are relevant.