The concept of basic human values in Oriental and Occidental cultures: linguistic representation
The paper is focused on the lexical means representing the basic human values as perceived by various cultures and religions. Differences between the Occidental and Oriental understanding of “value” are analyzed, along with the English and Russian definition of the term. A system of knowledge and views on human values may be represented as a concept. Its components tend to reflect material benefits in the Western worldview and personal traits and spiritual values in oriental communities. In some cases, the notion of “virtue” is replaced with the “marketing-related” interpretation of “value”. In view of a weakening religious influence on the western civilization and a gradual change in morals, behavioral standards tend to be prescribed by statutory acts. At the same time, oriental practices and philosophies gain new followers among western population, as they oppose striving to harmony, purity and love of nature to contemporary anti-values typical of the consumption society. The content of “basic human values” concept and linguistic means used to explicate it are subject to constant adjustment, especially given the changing geopolitical and social reality.