Semantic complexes in the Russian anthropological linguistics: semantic entities and their components
The author examines the notions of semantic binary complexes in Russian anthropological linguistics (linguoculturology) and counter-meanings (anti-concepts) of the highest level of abstractness “unhappiness”, “injustice” and “ungratefulness.” These notions have not yet been given due attention. There is a lack of unity of opinion regarding the essence of the contrasting members of the binomial and regarding the understanding of meaning and antithesis, where there are two main points of view: 1) the anti-concept opposes the concept on any basis; 2) the basis of the opposition of the concept and the anti-concept is exclusively an axiological feature. It is also established that the most significant difference between unhappiness and happiness is the greater specificity of the first, which at the linguistic level is manifested in the ability of the lexeme “neschastje” to take a plural form, which is impossible for “schastje”. If justice is an example of an abstract category, then its “antipode” – injustice is quite concrete: this is a certain state of affairs. Psychologically, injustice is ahead of justice in time of formation, and if for the abstract name “spravedlivost” the plural is a deviation from the norm, then the concreteness of the name “nespravedlivost” is evidenced by the ease with which it takes the form of the plural. The “nominative density” of lexical indicators of gratitude is not particularly high, but it certainly takes place. At the same time, ingratitude has no other means of expression other than those derived from the stem “nespravedliv-“. In the semantics of ingratitude, there are just as many, if not more, characteristics that are not associated with antonymic features common with gratitude. Thus, it can be argued that, psychologically, the formation of opposing pairs of higher-level concepts begins with a more specific negative counterterm, at the same time, the nominative density of the means of expressing the anti-concept does not necessarily exceed the nominative density of the concept.