Only scientific materials should be included into Reference list.

For other sources use footnotes.


General Guidelines:

  • Your footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper.
  • Use your word processing program to insert footnotes and it will number them for you automatically.
  • The footnote number should always be inserted after the punctuation. 1
  • The first time you cite a source, you will include a full citation. e.g.

 Ellis, G., & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: A course in learner training, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  • For all subsequent references to that text, your footnote citation will be in abbreviated form.

If the citation has already been cited it may be shortened to author's last name, shortened title, and page referenced number. e.g.

Ellis, & Sinclair, Learning, 77.

  • If the citation has been referenced immediately prior, the note may be shortened even further to ibid with the page number. e.g.
  • 3, 186.


Footnote Basic format (book is used as an example):

Author, A. (Year). Title in Italics, City of publication, Country / State, page number if relevant.


Subsequent references to the same text:

Author, A. (Year). Title in shortened form, page number.



If your second reference to a text comes immediately after the first, use “Ibid.” in place of the author’s name and the book title. Include the page number if it is different from that listed in the first reference.



1 Ellis, G., & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: A course in learner training, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

2 Ibid, 162.

3 CERI. (2008). Assessment for learning formative assessment, Organization for economic co-operation and development, retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/site/educeri21st/40600533.pdf


Cilizza, C. (2015, September 15). An amazing Donald Trump word salad, The Washington Post, retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/09/15/an-amazing-donald-trump-word-salad/?utm_term=.6add3908d9b3

6 Ellis, & Sinclair, Learning, 86-87.



The second and sixth footnotes above cite direct quotes or material found on one or more specific pages, therefore the page numbers of the source are included.