DOI: 10.18413/2313-8912-2021-7-4-0-4

Auxiliary verbs of movement in French, English, Russian and Tatar

The purpose of this article is to identify the allomorphic and isomorphic features of auxiliary verbs in various analytical constructions. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that common and different semantic meanings and structural components of analytical constructions in different languages are distinguished with the parallel creation of a common field of variability. As a result, it was proved that in French, English, Russian and Tatar languages the number of auxiliary verbs ranges from 1 to 4 and there is only one single verb completely deprived of its own meaning. The semantic field of verbal analytical constructions includes nuclear temporal, aspectual and modal meanings along with private peripheral ones. The presence of 4 auxiliary verbs determines their activity in different time planes. In French, English and Tatar languages the aspectual meaning of iteration and temporal meaning of past is grammaticalized together by one partially desemantized auxiliary verb. Aspectual meanings of the phase as well as modal meanings are realized by corresponding verbs.  In English the presence of 4 auxiliary verbs allows them to function in modal area too. Using the example of the verb of movement to go we proved the dependence of quantitative indicators of functioning in direct meaning and functioning as part of grammatical structures with partial loss of meaning. Based on these indicators, we determined the level of desemantization of the auxiliary verb to go. We  established that the realization of direct meaning and the realization of partial meaning loss in analytical structure vary in a wide range according to the data of four languages, for example, in French – 1:4, in English – 100:1, in Tatar – 1:1. In Russian only the realization of a figurative sense by the verb to go is found.

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